Published December 3, 2015
Michael Martinez
Title: Scraping JavaScript pages with Python: Selenium, Requests, and Beautiful Soup Date: 2015-12-03 23:08 Author: Michael Category: Python Tags: BeautifulSoup, Javascript, Requests, Scraping, Selenium Slug: scraping-javascript-pages-with-python-selenium Status: published
Note: Imgur has an API. Please use the API if you intend to gather images from Imgur.
This post is a short demonstration of scraping JavaScript webpages that are not possible to scrape with Beautiful Soup or Requests by themselves.  While imgur has an API, the thought occurred that perhaps there are many, many sites that do not have an API that need a good scraping. If that is the case, how do you scrape them? Selenium. Lets dive in and I will show you:
First things first, import the modules that will be used. You will need to install these I prefer to use the Anaconda Python distribution. The managing of Python environments is not in the scope of this demo, so I will leave the management of that to you. Suffice to say that you can install requests and beautiful soup with conda. Selenium can be created as a package then uploaded to Anaconda Cloud with Binstar and… well, you can simply install Selenium with pip.
:::python import os from selenium import webdriver from bs4 import BeautifulSoup from requests import get
Next, define where you want to store the images. This will store the image in the present working directory or the directory where the script lives.
:::python # Make a directory in the pwd, if one already exists. Cool. os.makedirs('imgur', exist_ok=True) # Make directory to store the images
Now we can instantiate the Selenium webdriver, and pass a url to fetch. I used firefox because it seems like it is very well supported. I didn’t even try with Chrome which is my browser of choice.
:::python # Imgur is not possible to scrape without Selenium. Because Javascript. browser = webdriver.Firefox() # Instantiate a webdriver object browser.get('') # Go to Imgur
This is where your investigation begins. First, define an empty list to hold the links of the pages. Turns out that imgur renders the home page with thumbnails of images. The links to the pages where the main image src resides is within the class image-list-link. Every website is different and rendered JavaScript pages can use wildly different naming conventions. Thus the need to dig with your browser before you start coding.  To investigate with a OSX, tune your browser (chrome) to the url you wish to scrape and press: option | command | j  Then start inspecting elements.
:::python # Makes list of links to get full image links = [] # This is the container of images on the main page cards = browser.find_elements_by_class_name('image-list-link') for img_src in cards: # Now assemble list to pass to requests and beautifulsoup links.append(img_src.get_attribute('href'))
The rest of the story. This bit of code loops through the links list created in the previous snippet. We call requests.get() to url stored in links list. Then we pass the html from requests to beautiful soup where we can dominate it with reckless abandon. We ask soup to select the post-image class img tag. Then we check if it is empty. If the list is not empty, we assign the actual src of the imageLink to imageUrl. This variable is prefixed with http: and sent back to requests for retrieval.  If the url is mangled or mistyped we handle the exception and move to the next one. If not, we write the file to directory and using requests iter_chunks method in 100,000 byte increments. Close the image file and start the next round or finish the script.
:::python # loop through the links list (I'm slicing to 5) for page in links[:5]: res = requests.get(page) res.raise_for_status() soup = BeautifulSoup(res.text, 'html.parser') imageLink ='.post-image img') if imageLink == []: print('Nothing here...') else: try: # assign imageUrl hold the actual file name of the image imageUrl = imageLink[0].get('src') #Download the image print('Downloading image %s...' %(imageUrl)) res = requests.get('http:'+imageUrl) res.raise_for_status() except requests.exceptions.MissingSchema: continue imageFile = open(os.path.join('imgur', os.path.basename(imageUrl)), 'wb') for chunk in res.iter_content(100000): imageFile.write(chunk) imageFile.close()